The sonic equivalent of photomontage and collage, Musique Concrete is created using audio tapes and turntables, sometimes in combination with live instruments. In 1948, French composer Pierre Schaeffer created compositions by editing tapes of found sounds, field recordings, and pre-recorded music with the intent to "destroy music." He soon teamed up with the like-minded Pierre Henry, who was performing similar experiments, and the duo formed the Groupe de Recherches Musicales in 1958. Their techniques were expanded upon by composers like Stockhausen, and eventually led to sampling/Plunderphonic artists like Negativland and John Oswald. DJs like DJ Shadow, Christian Marclay and the Bomb Squad were also influenced by Musique Concrete.